Source: D.C. Government’s Office of Disability Rights
Employees or applicants with disabilities may request reasonable accommodations of the employer, regardless of title, salary, grade, bargaining unit, employment status (permanent, temporary, provisional, emergency) or civil service status (regular, exempt). This request does not have to be in writing, be formal or use any special language. An individual may use “plain English” and need not mention the ADA or use the phrase “reasonable accommodation.”
Here are some examples from the Job Accommodation Network:
Example A: An employee tells her supervisor, “I’m having trouble getting to work at my scheduled starting time because of medical treatments I’m undergoing.” This is a request for a reasonable accommodation
Example B: An employee tells his supervisor, “I need six weeks off to get treatment for a back problem.” This is a request for a reasonable accommodation.
Example C: A new employee, who uses a wheelchair, informs the employer that her wheelchair cannot fit under the desk in her office. This is a request for a reasonable accommodation.
Example D: An employee tells his supervisor that he would like a new chair because his present one is uncomfortable. Although this is a request for a change at work, his statement is insufficient to put the employer on notice that he is requesting reasonable accommodation. He does not link his need for the new chair with a medical condition.
A request for accommodation also may be made by a family member, health professional, or other representative who is acting on the individual’s behalf with the individual’s consent.
The employee usually initiates the reasonable accommodation process by inquiring about the process from a supervisor, Human Resources representative, EEO Counselor, or the ADA Coordinator at the agency. If the supervisor is contacted first, the ADA Coordinator should be brought in early in the process.
If an employee with a known or obvious disability is having performance problems, a supervisor may suggest an accommodation, but only after making a preliminary determination that the performance problem is related to the employee’s disability. This is an exception to the general rule against inquiring about disabilities, and extends only to those with known or obvious disabilities.
The reasonable accommodation does not have to be requested at the beginning of employment. However, a reasonable accommodation request will not cancel out any prior disciplinary actions.
The ADA requires that the employer engage in an interactive dialogue with the individual with a disability concerning reasonable accommodations. It is best to take a methodical approach in addressing requests for reasonable accommodation from employees.
Immediately upon receiving the reasonable accommodation request, the agency ADA Coordinator/EEO Counselor should schedule a meeting with the employee as soon as possible. The employee’s collective bargaining agent or other person(s) of his/her choosing may assist the employee during this meeting.
The agency’s ADA Coordinator should conduct an informal, interactive discussion with the employee. The discussion should include the following steps:
- A review of the agency’s detailed, written job description/vacancy announcement delineating the “essential functions” of the position from the “marginal functions.”
- A determination of how the employee’s impairment/disability limits his/her ability to perform the essential functions of his/her job in order to identify the employee as a qualified individual with a disability.
- An identification of potential accommodations and assessment of the effectiveness of such accommodations on the employee’s job performance.
- Identification of the type of accommodation needed. The Job Accommodation Network can be contacted for assistance in making this assessment at 1 (800) 232-9675 (Voice/TTY) or http://janweb.icdi.wvu.edu.
- Consideration of the preference of the employee; however, the agency has the right to select among the alternatives available, as long as they are effective.
- Selection and implementation of the effective reasonable accommodation by the agency as expeditiously as possible. Keep the dialogue open with the employee and discuss time lines for obtaining the accommodation and follow up with the employee on unexpected delays.
The agency may find it difficult to accommodate the disability because it is not well understood or because neither the employee nor the ADA Coordinator know what equipment, modification or accommodation will enable the employee to perform the essential functions of the job. The agency ADA Coordinator should consult the Office of Disability Rights (ODR) for additional reference material and service organizations that may help in identifying appropriate accommodations.
Medical Documentation and Confidentiality
If the disability is not obvious, and there is no other medical information already on record for the employee, the agency can require the employee to submit documentation from a physician or other medical professional concerning the existence and extent of the disability. Before consulting with the physician, it is necessary to obtain the individual’s written consent for the release of medical information to the agency.
The employee’s medical information must be maintained in a confidential file separate from the employee’s personnel file or other records and must not be revealed to anyone who does not need to know in order to provide the accommodation. In some instances, the employee’s supervisor does not need to know about the person’s disability or accommodations. In those situations, the information should not be shared with the supervisor.
Information about the employee’s disability or accommodations should not be revealed to co-workers, customers, or members of the public.
After the initial meeting and review of medical documentation (if submitted by the employee’s healthcare professional), the agency will make a determination whether the employee is a qualified individual with a disability and develop a Reasonable Accommodation Plan for the employee.
Reasonable Accommodation Plan
The Reasonable Accommodation Plan will:
- State whether the employee is a “qualified individual with a disability” as defined by the ADA;
- Outline the employee’s essential job functions needing accommodation;
- Recommend types of accommodation; consideration will be given to the preference of the employee, however, the agency has the right to select among the alternatives available; and
- Determine whether any accommodation causes an undue hardship or poses a direct threat.
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Bryan A. Chapman, Esquire