By Bryan A. Chapman, Esquire
In the spring of 2020, COVID-19 caused massive disruption in the United States. Within a few months, millions of workers became unemployed due to COVID-19 related layoffs. According to the U.S. Labor Department figures, in April 2020, the number of unemployment workers exceeded those of the Great Depression, and Hispanics and African Americans workers were especially impacted. COVID-19 related layoffs disproportionately affected older and disabled workers.
According to AARP, when the overall U.S. unemployment rate spiked from 4.4% in March to 14.7% in April, the unemployment rate for women 55 and older rose even more: from 3.3% to 15.5%. The unemployment rate for men 55+ also soared, though a little bit less, from 3.4% to 12.1%.
Some employers see COVID-19 related layoffs as an opportunity to eliminate older workers. To these employers, older workers represent higher salaries and higher expenses due to insurance costs and paid time off due to illness. Some employers may have a similar attitude about disabled workers.
According to a May 2020 Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Jobs Report, the number of working-age people with disabilities who were employed decreased by 950,000 between March and April (from 4,772,000 to 3,827,000), a 20 percent reduction.
Nonetheless, federal workplace anti-discrimination laws still apply. A worker can not be discrimination against and/or harassed based on their race, sex, national origin, religion, age, or disability.
The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) specifically warned employers about discriminatory layoffs. According to the EEOC, an employer should “review the process to determine if it will result in the disproportionate dismissal of older employees, employees with disabilities or any other group protected by federal employment discrimination laws”.
COVID-19 layoff can facilitate sexual harassment. Supervisors can use the threat of a COVID-19 related layoff to force subordinates to submit to unwanted sexual advances.
The earliest cases of COVID-19 occurred in China. As a result, Asian and Asian American workers have become targets for workplace discrimination/harassment.
Employers can deliberately use COVID-19 as a pretext to discriminate against and/or harass workers based on their race, sex, national origin, religion, age, or disability. Here are examples of illegal workplace discrimination:
1. you are laid off, while workers of a different race, sex, national origin, religion, age, or without a disability are not;
2. you are denied a promotion or increase in pay, while workers of a different race, sex, national origin, religion, age, or without a disability are not;
3. you are demotion or given a reduction in pay, while workers of a different race, sex, national origin, religion, age, or without a disability are not;
4. you are given an undesirable assignment or shift, while workers of a different race, sex, national origin, religion, age, or without a disability are not; and,
5. you are being verbally or physically harassed, while workers of a different race, sex, national origin, religion, age, or without a disability are not.
Federal workplace anti-discrimination laws also prohibit retaliation. Retaliation occurs when a worker is mistreated because they complained about discrimination. Here are examples of retaliation:
- undesirable transfers
2. unwarranted disciplinary action
4. refusal of deserved promotion or pay increase
5. demotion or pay reduction
6. termination of employment
Retaliation occurs when an employer takes an adverse action against a worker that is designed to stop a worker from complaining about discrimination/harassment. The adverse action should occur shortly after the worker complains.
Consult an attorney
If you are a victim of discrimination or retaliation, consult an experienced civil rights attorney.
Law Office of Bryan A. Chapman
Bryan A. Chapman, Esquire
Join Facebook group: I Need A Discrimination Lawyer